Difference Between Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning

Artificial Intelligence is the most talked-about innovation of the 21st century and later, it’s been everywhere, in every talk shows, in the news, in the programs of the top universities, schools or companies. But how many of us really know Artificial Intelligence?

For common people, Artificial Intelligence is “the car that drives itself” like Google cars or Uber cars or the auto-completion in the “smart”-phones or the automatic “real-time” or more commonly real-time translation from one language to another language by the same “smart”-phones.

You can find that most IT professionals and students will associate Artificial Intelligence with Machine Learning which includes Neural Network, Bayesian logic, Support Vector Machines, etc.

Only specialists can rightly define and understand the scale of what is called Artificial Intelligence.

The Non-Human Intelligence

The Non Human Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence is also called non-human intelligence. We need to go deep into non-technical and philosophical concepts in order to understand it correctly.

Artificial Intelligence supposes that we can define two notions: Humanity and Intelligence. Actually they can be linked one to each other as we hardly believe there could be other intelligence than ours.

Given the example of nature and how we know animals, plants and insects, we can conclude that there do exist other forms of intelligence that are not human.

The intelligence of animals usually and their capacity to organize themselves and their abilities different from humans give us another insight into the role played by intelligence in various life forms.

Although we regard the intelligence of such groups of animals, plants or insects as inferior and even largely inferior to our human intelligence, this does not change the fact that we have everywhere on our planet numerous proofs of Artificial intelligence.

As for the definition of human intelligence, we are unable to give a precise definition of what it is because we are unable to give a precise definition of “what we are”. Since the beginning of our existence as humans – Homo Sapiens – more than 200,000 years ago, we have searched for answers everywhere, developed arts, build science and technology over the years and the civilizations.

Human intelligence is linked to the nature of our brains and of our evolution of which we know factually but in a certain limitation. Our modern civilization has reached a point of technology where we are able to build intelligent machines and while they still are our creation, the intelligent machines may as well demonstrate Artificial Intelligence.

Evolution of  Artificial Intelligences

Automats

In the past, long before modern civilization, men used to build automats. Many complex automats were built by the genius of the ancient greeks. They were using hydraulic and mechanical mechanisms to move parts to build giant structures and in warfare technology.

While probably sophisticated the mechanism behind these automats could not have called “Artificial Intelligence”, they still were the continuation of the human mind through what was the technology of the time.

The Mechanical Dolls

In later centuries, more sophisticated automats were built. Automated dolls using clock mechanisms were massively built in Europe from the Renaissance to the 19th century.

In spite of being as close to the representation of a human as it was, they were only automats, very rigid, predictable and linear. They were inert and dead pieces of metals without life and without intelligence. It was still the “direct” product of human ability and human intelligence. Yet they could to some ways, give the impression of autonomous behavior.

The uncanny valley

When they started developed human-looking robots in the ’70s, Japanese engineers discovered the uncanny valley principle, the human disorientation and emotional response to a very lookalike automat. In fact, this is probably at the bottom of that mostly unexplored valley that human intelligence stops and that artificial intelligence appear.

Algorithms vs Artificial Intelligence

With the rise of computers and especially digital technology, applications of several mathematical principles were made possible. These mathematical principles gave birth to a class of algorithms known as the Machine Learning algorithms. Yet the automats and robots continued to inspire as the creation of human intelligence.

Anyway, as machines became incredibly more and more powerful, reaching computation speed of incredible scales, the Machine Learning algorithms started slightly to outperform humans in certain domains where it was believed that only the human mind could be the uncontested champion.

In 1997, the supercomputer Deep Blue became the first machine to beat a grand chess master (Gary Kasparov). The algorithms used were mostly brute-force based and not deep learning and as such, they hardly could be classified as Artificial Intelligence.

In fact what beat Kasparov was the superior computation capacity of the machine rather than a superior intelligence to the human mind.

In that case, it is not clear if we can speak of Artificial Intelligence or not. We mostly deal with a machine provided with very important computation capacity and relatively simple algorithms.

So where ends the algorithms, and where starts the Artificial Intelligence?
The 1997 Deep Blue Machine, in fact, the combination of its hardware, its chips and algorithmic programmed with some code just proved that a team of programmers and engineers are able to build a machine to help them better play chess than a grand chess master. It is more of a man-machine association.

In fact, we haven’t seen (probably fortunately) any artificial intelligence in machines so far… they stay the sophisticated automats that men have always built, they are no longer made of bronze or steel but silicon. They do not use hydraulics or clocks to move parts but programming languages and the same as the other automats they are finite state machines.

Machines animated with artificial intelligence probably reside in that uncanny valley that we mentioned and we haven’t explored it enough to know what it could look like.

Machine Learning

Machine Learning

Machine Learning is becoming a “buzzword” nowadays while the concept has been invented a long time ago. Decision algorithms using techniques from functional analysis and statistics appeared in the ’50s.

The main ML algorithm is probably the Artificial Neural Network algorithm which can be used for deep learning where the neurons are organized in different layers to reach a better learning quality, extracting progressively information from raw input.

The core principle of machine learning, artificial neural network, vector support machines, classification, and others, is the ability to feed itself from data (information) to learn, that is to say, to become better. Not a better man, but a better machine, ML, therefore, is an “information processor” unit using mathematics and/or probability and eventually inspired by the sour of human intelligence: the neurons.

Yet while impressively they may behave, the ML algorithms are the product of human intelligence, therefore pseudo-Artificial Intelligence. But to the opposite, the combination of big data +processors + network + ML algorithm may create a “primitive” soup from which digital life may emerge – and therefore we may speak of artificial intelligence.

A machine provided with artificial intelligence would be autonomous, make its own decisions, evolve absolutely independently of humans and may eventually show consciousness. The gap between ML algorithms and AI is the same as between life and death, between an inert stone and a living animal! The key factor for this to eventually happen is complexity.

Perils of AI

Before his death, the famous physicist Stephen Hawking made this warning in “Research Priorities for Robust and Beneficial Artificial Intelligence: An Open Letter”:

We could one day lose control of AI systems via the rise of super-intelligences that do not act in accordance with human wishes – and that such powerful systems would threaten humanity. Are such dystopian outcomes possible? If so, how might these situations arise? …What kind of investments in research should be made to better understand and address the possibility of the rise of a dangerous super-intelligence or the occurrence of an “intelligence explosion”?”

Artificial Intelligence is non-human intelligence. The sources of such non-human intelligence can be Nature, ants for example.

It could be the possible byproduct of human activity in machines, learning machines co-operating into networks in uncontrolled ways.
Actually any form of alien (non-human) civilization would appear to us as “artificial intelligence” … and if we want to enter religious considerations, we may well be the “artificial intelligence” of a god.

It may be a good time to prove, once more, that humans are not so stupid and are able to control their own creations for what they need and direct their own destiny because no matter how far we may have managed through, the odds will always favor the survival of the fittest!

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The Role of Artificial Intelligence in Web development

Ever since the onset of the electronics and computer age, mankind has been fascinated and intrigued by the idea of achieving limitless and near to perfection capabilities in machine learning. The curiosity of man gave him wings to fly and blessed him with a better lifestyle and a longer lifespan. The next goal of man was to create, if not the best, but definitely a better version of himself but in order to achieve that, he must start with the most complex part of human anatomy, the one part that separates him and makes him dominant of all other species on the planet- The Human Intelligence.

The never-ending quest for excellence in the field of machine learning and continuous enhancements in the processing and memorizing abilities of computers in the last two decades ushered in an era of artificial intelligence. From space stations to play stations, the presence of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology started to impact our lives gradually yet the one area where its contribution has been significant is in the field of web and mobile technologies. Assisted by the growth in internet data speed, the rise of technology in our daily lives has been rampant and phenomenal. The web and mobile technology stalwarts like Google, Microsoft, Amazon, Facebook and Apple have taken the market like a storm and are leading the research in the field of AI.

Artificial Intelligence has been precisely the next level in web development. With the advent of next-generation processors and a variety of applications along with fourth and fifth generation internet speeds, it is imperative that the systems do not lag behind their processing and computing abilities. Rather than being just a trivia box, we expect the systems to do learn, unlearn and relearn. We should be focusing on increasing the capability of a computer program or system to think and learn and create programs without any human assistance. As machines become increasingly capable, mental facilities once thought to require intelligence are removed from the definition. Artificial intelligence emphasizes on the creation of intelligent machines that work and react like humans. Some of the activities computers with artificial intelligence are designed for include: Speech and Facial recognition and cognitive abilities.

Why do we need Artificial Intelligence in Web Development?

AI technologies offer a major advantage in person-machine interactions. Without learning capabilities, applications will approach a problem in the same way time after time, and make the same mistake without modifying or optimizing the solution based on prior experience.

Machine Learning is an enabling AI technology that allows web applications to adapt over time by observing and learning from users’ habits, idiosyncrasies, and preferences. User experience improves as a result of the applications just being smarter.

AI and web development

More and more users prefer searching for goods directly through web platforms like Amazon instead of searching. Large e-commerce companies are changing our attitude to online purchasing and, as a result, website development is enhanced considerably. Successful e-commerce companies actively implement innovative technologies in their work such as chatbots, voice search and other AI solutions.

Some benefits of Artificial Intelligence implementation for website development are:-

  • Makes search faster with relevant results
  • Makes interactions with visitors better
  • Provide a more relevant customer experience
  • Provide a personalized store experience
  • Effective marketing to targeted consumers
  • Understands user behavior and consumer orientation

How does Artificial Intelligence integrate with commercial enterprises?

Modern mainstream website development has focused on the building of a customer-facing front-end presence on the Internet and the integration of the front-end with enterprise back-office operations. The AI toolkits offered by global industry leaders have made possible the adoption of AI in enterprise web applications. It’s no longer needed to hire AI specialists or researchers to empower your websites with natural language understanding capabilities.

Instead, mainstream web developers can integrate AI into chatbots on your existing web and mobile technology platforms. Developers do not need to be retrained to code in esoteric AI programming languages to take advantage of the technology. Instead, they work with APIs and tools which they are already familiar with, for instance, Python, Ruby, C++. Java, .Net, Node.js, JavaScript, CSS, HTML.

What AI toolkits are available in the market?

Google, Facebook, and companies of that ilk have come up with AI toolkits that enable the plugging of ready-made natural language understanding and machine learning features into web applications.

wit.ai and Dialogflow (formerly api.ai) are free services owned by Facebook and Google respectively. In contrast, Amazon LexIBM WatsonMicrosoft LUIS are commercial paid services.

What is the scope of AI in natural language learning?

AI has made a significant impact in understanding natural language learning and can work not just in English but in many other languages. The average web user interacts with the enterprise mainly through web menus, buttons and text fields. Interactive tools such as chatbots are automated software agents which interact with web visitors, usually in a natural language such as English and perform tasks as requested by the visitors. Chatbots have been deployed in the enterprise, often to process customer inquiries, sales and support.

Without AI, chatbots can only understand a narrow set of language constructs which system developers have predefined. If a sentence deviates only so slightly from the known set of sentences, a chatbot will not be able to parse it. A personal digital assistant also works in the same manner and uses AI efficiency to understand user behavior and provides relevant content or services to them. Their commercial success is evident from the many recent AI-based personal digital assistants – Siri from Apple, Alexa from Amazon, Cortana from Microsoft, and the Google Assistant.

What are the current challenges in the implementation of AI?

Deploying AI using the above toolkits is not without challenges. Despite the toolkits’ best effort to hide the intricacies of artificial intelligence, developers still need to learn new lingo and concepts such as agents, intents, entities and actions. It is reassuring, however, to know that online documentation is readily available for bringing developers up to speed with the toolkits. Learning to integrate and customize the technology is very much feasible.

A more formidable challenge for integrating the toolkits is that the software requires additional customization in order for it to understand the specific concepts in your particular application domain. These toolkits are designed to be general-purpose starting points for understanding day-to-day language constructs, and may not be specific enough to parse the domain-specific concepts or the typical tasks that your web visitors may wish accomplished.

Consequently, human trainers must provide the software with a concept hierarchy that is specific to your application. In addition, to improve the accuracy of sentence parsing for your particular application domain, trainers must explicitly provide sentence examples of the typical requests that your applications are designed to handle.

This training component is very time-consuming and tedious, yet necessary in order to reduce the chance of errors in understanding customer’s requests.

To overcome the initial training hurdles and to jumpstart the adoption of AI toolkits, toolkit vendors have started to provide pre-built domain models that target specific industries and tasks. For example, Dialogflow offers pre-built agents that target industries such as coffee shops, restaurants, hotels, airlines, and common tasks such as product support, map navigation, web search, etc. Microsoft LUIS features pre-built domains for taxis, restaurant reservation, movie theatres, fitness tracking, etc.

The trend to provide prepackaged domains will definitely shorten the time to deploy AI functionalities in web applications.

Future of Artificial Intelligence in web development

The rise of AI-enabled software has the potential of revolutionizing how customers interact with online enterprises. It is not inconceivable that, in the near future, a chatbot is the first point of contact between the customer and the online enterprise. The chatbot will analyze the needs of the customer based on prior natural language interaction, whether it be for product inquiry, troubleshooting, or sales. The chatbot has self-knowledge of its own capabilities and limitations and will resolve all issues that are within its capabilities.

For those issues that it cannot resolve, the chatbot will escalate them to the appropriate second-level human analyst for a successful resolution. AI-enabled chatbots or virtual digital assistants can be the next-generation enterprise digital assistants of your brand on the Internet. The chatbot could be in the form of a digital application or maybe even a holographic virtual human assistant who would just pop out of the peripheral projector and guide you through the entire process like a live human agent. Your tech sci-fi movie scenes might soon become a reality.

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Artificial Intelligence And The Future Of Mankind

We, as humans have always been the most intriguing species on the planet ever since our civilized life began approximately 10,000 years ago. We have come a long way from the belief in divine forces to finally discovering the laws of nature and working of the universe through the medium of science and technology. The understanding of the Earth, the Sun, the Moon and other planets led to the debunking of previously held religious beliefs paving the way for the advancement of Science as we know today. Instead of getting overawed by the mythical stories of flying gods or relying on psychics, mystics and shamanic rituals for body treatments or solutions to life problems, man learned to use scientific laws and technological and medicinal methods to ensure his survival and improve his lifestyle. In the past few centuries, with this education and learning, man has evolved into significant proportions when compared to his total lifespan on the earth.

Upon analysis of the breakthroughs in recent centuries, it is undebatable that the single most underlying factor behind this transition period has been human intelligence. The brain functionality of an average urban of today differs remarkably from most of his predecessors down the evolution line. The human being of today, especially in the developed world and many progressive countries, has become more analytical with better abilities of problem-solving skills. This is evident from the growth of mathematics and computation fields further enhanced by one of the greatest discoveries of mankind towards the end of the 20th century- ‘The computers’. From being a tool to assist and speed up calculations to a complete life transforming device- the computers have been constantly upgraded to suit all our needs.

On the other hand, the rise of the Internet which has been hailed as another great discovery in the field of electronics and communication industry has revolutionized the way we communicate with each other. The parameters of business between different corners of the world have seen a dramatic change with the rise of internet-supported platforms known as E-commerce. Humans across the world have become more interactive and the world has shrunk to extraordinary levels. The supply chain management has become more efficient and time-driven. The future success of any business depends on how well they adapt to changing business trends where the emphasis is on decreasing human intervention and dependence on manual labour. Major tech companies have contributed their success to decreasing margins of human errors in various processes and shortening product manufacturing and delivery timelines. The use of drones simulating a delivery boy has been successfully run by E-commerce giants like Amazon and Alibaba. Japan has been gearing up for its hosting of 2020 Olympics and its preparations are in full swing for establishing its image as a global tech leader. Driverless cabs accessed by smartphones to ferry visitors have already been launched along with the language translator and guest assistant Robots which have been installed at Airports and all sports venues. The trade and service industry is all set for a major overhaul with the advent of AI technologies. The concept of AI focuses on limiting or completely nulling the human errors and increasing the speed of processing simultaneously.

But the question arises on how far have we reached in the field of Artificial Intelligence technology? Would we ever be able to enhance the incredible abilities of a human brain by creating an artificial one? To what extent can we mimic or simulate the natural abilities of the human brain? So far we have intelligent modules which are thousands of times faster and error-free than the human brain but they are limited to certain specific functions and speeds only and are largely dependent on human programming. The competition between brain and machine has been trending for the last few decades. The famous battle between Chess legend Gary Kasparov and supercomputer Deep Blue stole headlines in 1997 when the grandmaster managed to secure a tight draw against the highly capable, errorless and faster machine. Today the focus is entirely on creating a machine which has an independent brain of its own and once installed doesn’t need to be programmed again. In short, a machine which can create thoughts and take decisions without any human assistance. A recent breakthrough was achieved when the brain of a worm was fed into a simulator. It was interesting to note that the simulator worked and copied the moments exactly like the organic worm. It is further interesting to note that the brain of the worm has just 300 neurons when compared to a human brain which has a whopping 86 million neurons where a single neuron can interact with 8000 other neurons at a single point of time through synaptic connectors. As per the experts, the work of achieving 100% AI will need a lot of technology enhancements which although doesn’t look achievable in the near future but is not practically impossible. The present-day motherboards and systems will considerably heat up while processing data similar to a human brain and would require thousands of Terabytes of uninterrupted data for the model to succeed.

But what if a perfect AI model is achieved? What will be the repercussions on the society and the world? How dangerous will it be when we create an independent thinking mind with a perfection scale of 100%? What about human emotions and ethics? A demonstration to these scary doubts and prophecies could be seen in the Hollywood movie Transcendence which highlighted the dangers AI could pose on mankind. Yet whatever said and done, one thing is for sure that mankind is about to witness another evolutionary change in its living and lifestyle in the years to come.

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